# 0-dan başlayan çap bəstəkarında QGIS graticule koordinatları?

Problemimin düzgün bir şəkildə necə izah ediləcəyinə əmin deyiləm, çünki ingilis dilim olmalı olduğu qədər yaxşı deyil - amma hər halda sınayım.

Xorvatiyanın geoportalı üçün WMS təbəqəsi kimi yüklənmiş bir qatdan hazırlanmış son dərəcə sadə bir xəritə yaratmağa çalışdım. Lazımi təbəqəni uğurla yüklədim və hər şeyi çap bəstəkarında yaratdım, amma problem budur ki, graticule koordinatlar sistemi həqiqi dəyərlərindən deyil 0-dan başlayır? Nə səhv edirəm?

Nəhayət özüm düzəltməyi bacardım, onsuz da;)

Hiylə interval vahidlərini olduğu kimi buraxmaqdır: Xəritə vahidləri.

## QGIS »QGIS Tətbiqi

"Müraciət üçün müraciət kağızı və aşağıdakı tapşırıqlar üzərində işləyən bir qrup ödənişli və könüllü ianəçi tapdığımızı əsas götürərək 4 həftəlik maliyyələşdirilən bir yeniləmə iclası planlaşdırırıq:

• sənədlərin normalarını və qaydalarını və xüsusilə də PSC ilə birlikdə yeniləmə prosesini yoxlamaq və təkmilləşdirmək.
• son QGIS buraxılışlarında mövcud olan bütün xüsusiyyətləri daxil etmək üçün təlimatı yeniləyin (2.10 - 2.14).
• zəruri hallarda müəyyən edilmiş təlimatlara (ölçü, masa üstü mühiti, qətnamə) uyğun olaraq rəqəmləri yeniləyin.
• təlim kitabçası ilə rəqabət etmədən təlimatı daha qısa nümunələr və təkmilləşdirilmiş təsvirlərlə doldurun.
• bunları gözəl və dəqiq bir yazı üslubunda edin, mümkünsə digər proqram təlimatlarından ilham alın.

Burada [XÜSUSİYYƏT] qeydini göstərən və QGIS sənədlər versiyası 2.10 və 2.14-ə daxil edilməli / olması lazım olan git öhdəliklərinin siyahısını tapa bilərsiniz. "Git log --since = 20/02/2015 --grep = 'XÜSUSİYYƏT'" istifadə edərək yaradıldı - 2.8-in çıxmasından sonra ilk oldu. Bütün yeni xüsusiyyətlər "Sayılar" altındakı QGIS github Issue Tracker sənədləşdirmə sənədinə inteqrasiya olunmalı və "İstifadəçi Təlimatı" etiketinə baxılmalıdır, bax https://github.com/qgis/QGIS-Documentation/issues?q=is%3Aopen+is%3Aissue + etiket% 3A% 22User + Manual% 22. Orada bütün sənədlər bütün buraxılışları nəzərdən keçirə bilər, birbaşa github-da təlimatda yeniləyə və sonra Sayı bağlaya bilər.

Yeni xüsusiyyətlər haqqında daha çox məlumatı burada da tapa bilərsiniz:

Siyahıdakı bütün xüsusiyyətlər github saylarında bilet kimi birləşdirilmişdir: https://github.com/qgis/QGIS-Documentation/.

## Topo xəritəsi hazırlayın

Öz topo xəritələrinizi çap etmək üçün üç texnika burada müzakirə olunacaq. İlk ikisini səthi keçib vaxtımın çox hissəsini Quantum GIS (QGIS) istifadə etməyi öyrənməyə ayırıram.

1. Caltopo.com - yüksək keyfiyyətli kağız üzərində yaxşı topo xəritələri hazırlamaq üçün asan, ucuz bir onlayn yol. Mytopo.com-dan çox yaxşıdır
2. Foto Redaktorlar & # 8212 bu, artıq kompüterinizdə olan proqramdan istifadə edərək çapa hazır xəritələri onlayn çap etməyin sürətli və çirkli bir yolu ola bilər.
3. QGIS - Bir xəritə ilə daha mürəkkəb işlər görmək istəyirsinizsə, tam hüquqlu bir CİS proqramı, ehtiyaclarınıza tam uyğunlaşdırılmış xəritələr yaratmağa imkan verir.
##### Sizi maraqlandıra biləcək digər mənbələr

Smartfonunuzu son vaxtlar naviqasiya üçün istifadə edirsiniz? Bu köhnə GPS-i gətirməyə davam etməyin bir mənası olub olmadığını merak edirsiniz (buna görə bir xəritə və pusula heç nə deməyin və # 8230)? Google Earth ilə Garmin GPS vahidləri üçün Səyahət Planlaması haqqında məqaləmə baxın.

#### Terminologiya

[genişləndirmək başlığı = & # 8221Cərrahiyyə Terminologiyasına baxmaq üçün vurun & # 8221]

CİS - Coğrafi İnformasiya Sistemi hər növ məkan və ya coğrafi məlumatları tutmaq, saxlamaq, idarə etmək, təhlil etmək, idarə etmək və təqdim etmək üçün hazırlanmış bir sistemdir.

PDF - Adobe & # 8217s sənəd formatı

TIFF - yüksək qətnamə şəkli formatı

GeoTIFF və ya GeoPDF - CİS məlumatlarını yerləşdirmiş TIFF və ya PDF sənədləri

Laylar - Təsvir və CİS redaktə proqramlarında masanın üstündəki kağız təbəqələrinə bənzər təbəqələr istifadə olunur. Yuxarıdakı təbəqələr aşağıdakı təbəqələri əhatə edir.

Şəffaflıq - Qatlardakı şəffaflıqlar aşağıdakı təbəqələri görməyə imkan verir.

DPI - düym başına nöqtələr

GPX - GPS məlumat faylı formatı, digər şeylər arasında, yol nöqtələrini və parçaları da ehtiva edir

KML - Google Earth məlumat formatı

DEM - rəqəmsal yüksəklik modeli. Bu məlumatlar hava şəkillərindən (köhnə) və peyk şəkillərindən toplanır.
NTS - Bütün Kanada & # 8217s xəritələrini alfasayısal bir sistem halına gətirən bir indeksləmə sistemi olan Milli Topoqrafik Sistem.

Canmatrix - Bu Kanadada istifadə olunan köhnə çap edilmiş xəritə formatıdır. Bu xəritələr ümumiyyətlə çox yaxşı hazırlanmış və hazırlanmışdır və 50k xəritələr üçün olduqca ətraflı və təsirli naviqasiya alətləridir. Bu xəritələrdə bir neçə problem var: 1) Xəritə vərəqləri fərqli kontur aralıqlarından istifadə edir (100 metr və 40 metr ölçülü köhnə xəritələr əksər hallarda qonşu xəritələrdə olur, bəzi ərazilərdə kabus tikdirir, aşağı hündürlüklərdə 10-40 m konturlar və 40-100 eyni xəritədəki daha yüksəkliklərdə m konturları - yikes!) 2) Xəritə vərəqləri fərqli məlumat istifadə edir, məs. NAD27 və NAD83

Canvec - ən son görüntülərə, ərazi xüsusiyyətlərinə (məsələn, buzlaşma, torpaq örtüyü, binalar, yollar və s.) Və DEM məlumatlarına əsaslanan bütün metrik xəritələr. Aşağıdakı Toporamaya baxın.

Toporama - hazır Canvec məlumatlarını çap edin. Bu xəritələr aydın və cari. Ən böyük problem görüntülərin və nöqtə yüksəkliklərinin əsasən kompüter tərəfindən hazırlanmasıdır və həqiqətən (yaxşı) bir xəritə hazırlamaq üçün tələb olunan (insan) bir xəritə istehsalçısından ətraflı diqqət almamışdır.

TRIM & # 8212 BC mapping data. The original TRIM program, consisting of 7027 digital files, was completed in December 1996. For several reasons, it was necessary for the data to be updated. The map compilation photography was as much as 15 years out of date. The Forest Practices Code put greater demand on increased information content for features such as roads, stream, forest openings and such. This lead to the development of the TRIM II program. Like Canvec data this data is largely computer generated and often has major problems, e.g. ice cliffs on flat glaciers (Burnie, Bugaboos).

Collared/Uncollared – A map collar is the white space and information surrounding the map imagery including things like map name, declination details, legend, etc. It is commonly included on print-ready maps (e.g. when using a photo editor to print your map). When using a GIS program a collar is an annoyance that gets in the way of stitching and is complicated to remove accurately. For this reason, Uncollared map imagery is what you’ll want when using a GIS program.

QGISAcrGIS – popular GIS programs. ArcGIS is the industry standard but expensive. QGIS is an extremely powerful free program that is gaining traction, Parks Canada being one major user.

Projection – To make a map of a spherical earth 2-dimensional, a “projection” is required.

UTM – The Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) conformal projection uses a 2-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system to give locations on the surface of the Earth. Like the traditional method of latitude and longitude, it is a horizontal position representation, i.e. it is used to identify locations on the Earth independently of vertical position. However, it differs from that method in several respects.

The UTM system is not a single map projection. The system instead divides the Earth into sixty zones, each being a six-degree band of longitude, and uses a secant transverse Mercator projection in each zone.

Map Datum – the two map data used in Canada are NAD27 and NAD83. The different map data use different UTM grids that are slightly different. Your maps should always use the latest NAD83 UTM grid.

#### Caltopo.com

By far the easiest way to print maps, using caltopo.com is as simple as going to the website and following directions.

• Inexpensive and easy to use online tool that doesn’t require any installation of special programs or knowledge of GIS
• grid lines, declination, and other mapping information is automatically added to the map collar
• no visit to the print shop necessary – delivered to your door in about a week
• comes in a variety of sizes on waterproof and tear resistant paper, neatly folded into small pocket-sized maps
• fairly customizable
• a variety of map imagery is available
• Lacks the advanced features of a GIS program so you may not be able to customize it the way you want

#### Photo Editors

You can use a photo editor, e.g. Mac’s iPhoto or Windows’ Paint do do a quick and dirty map job so long as you have them in TIFF format. If you want to edit PDF files or stitch together multiple maps then a more sophisticated photo editing program that does layer editing, such as The GIMP, is what you need. These are the basic steps see sections below for details.

2. Open the map(s) you want to print with your photo editor
3. Do any necessary stitching
4. Ensure that the image’s DPI are correct (300 dpi is typical).
5. Crop the image so that it contains the information you want and has the correct dimensions for the type of paper you want to use.
6. Add text if desired (e.g. map information, declination, additional UTM numbering that might have been cropped off)
7. When you’re done, export your result to a PDF file. Windows 10 and Mac OS should come with this. You can also download a third party PDF tool, e.g. PDFCreator at http://www.pdfforge.org/

##### Map Search Tools

###### BC TRIM Maps

TRIM maps for anywhere in BC can be downloaded in collared GeoPDF format using this handy search tool (Click here to open in a new browser window):

##### Determining the Declination

Every map should include declination information, and the beauty of printing your own maps is that you can even use the exact declination for the date you plan on using the map so that you don’t have to do the calculation in the field. NRCan’s online calculator is exactly what you need: http://www.geomag.nrcan.gc.ca/calc/mdcal-en.php or, you could consider using this handy map-based interface that accomplishes the same thing: https://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/geomag-web/calculators/mobileDeclination

Unzip the files you’ve downloaded from NRCan. If you have more than one you will need to merge them. Open each file individually, select/copy and then paste into a new image file. The exact workflow of this procedure varies with different photo editors.

##### Scaling and sizing correctly

When you create your new image file you will need to choose a size based on the paper size you choose. The easiest is to print onto 11名 (tabloid) or 8.5吇 (letter) sized paper, but your local print shop will have much larger sizes available if you are printing maps for larger areas, e.g. a ski traverse, long hike, or canoe trip.

Ensure that your photo editor is set to print at the correct DPI for the image you’ve downloaded (e.g. 300 dpi). If you want to make a bigger map then you need to scale it appropriately. Məs. to turn a 50k into a 25k map you need to change the DPI from 300 dpi to 150 dpi.

There’s a good chance you’ll want to label your image with feature names or even trails. Just use the photo editor’s text tool and/or line drawing or pencil drawing tool with a contrasting colour. Play with the line width so that it’s not so thin you can’t see it but not so thick it obscures your map. It’s next to impossible to import GPX trails accurately onto an image using a photo editor this is what a GIS program like QGIS is for.

##### Cropping and stitching maps

If you just want to crop a portion of a single mapsheet for your map then this is straightforward. Just open the file, use your photo editor’s crop tool to crop a portion of the map, check to make sure it fits your desired paper size (some trimming, or using a larger paper size, might be necessary).

If you want to stitch maps, this is best left to a program like the GIMP. The workflow of this is as follows:

2) Select the areas you wish to stitch together from both maps, taking note of the pixel dimensions of each. Add these dimensions together, with a bit extra length and width to make working with it easier.

3) Create a new image with the dimensions you calculated in 2)

4) Copy and past the areas from both maps into the new image you created in 3) using two separate layers (important!)

5) Erase the collar from one of the images in one of the layers (e.g. select -> delete). With NTS maps this will not be exact since NTS maps don’t overlap at all, and the map imagery is angled slightly. Do the best you can.

6) Make sure this layer lies OVER the other layer and then position it correctly so that the features and grid lines line up. Note that

##### Printing considerations

You can order prints via online printers such as Staples Copy & Print Centre or visit your local print shop. In Canmore Bow Valley Basics and Bow Valley Business Services both do this. In Revelstoke, Salmon Arm, Enderby and Vernon, Lakeside Printing might work for you. In Nelson and Trail, Hall Printing has online document upload and printing services.

#### How to Create and Print Custom Canadian Topographic Maps with Quantum GIS

Təşəkkür edirəm Michael Embree who provided the how-to that got me started on this. The following information is adapted/copied from his website at:

This article describes how to create and print customized Canadian Topographic (topo) maps using free digital topographic map information made available on the Internet by the Government of Canada (NRCan) and the free Quantum GIS (QGIS) computer application. QGIS can also be used to create maps from other free or commercial digital map information such as Open Street Map or US nautical charts (Canadian digital nautical charts are available but not free) but that is not covered in here.

QGIS is free Geographic Information System (GIS) software that runs on Windows, MacOS and Linux. Because QGIS will seamlessly join map files and has a Print Composer that enables map scale, area displayed and rotation angle to be specified, custom maps can be created containing just the area of interest without regard for standard topo map sheet boundaries or orientation. This is very useful when a large format plotter isn’t available to print full size map sheets as just the area of interest can be printed on standard letter or legal paper sizes using a normal home or office printer. It also facilitates the production of coastal or trail strip maps showing just the immediate area around the coastline or trail for kayaking or hiking.

For maps files to be seamlessly joined, they must be georeferenced and have no collars (borders). Paper topo maps can be scanned and then edited to eliminate collars and georeferenced with some effort, but NRCan and GeoBC have made it easy by providing the freely downloadable Toporama 1:50,000 raster map series. The Toporama map files are indexed by the National Topographic System grid, are already georeferenced (GeoTIFF or GeoPDF), collarless, have no grid overlay, and are available in either UTM or Lat/Long projections. For kayaking and hiking purposes, the UTM projection would generally be the best choice as a 1 km UTM grid, which is very useful for navigation, can easily be overlaid on the map. The Toporama maps are based on the most recent NRCan CanVec vector topographic information database and a new edition is released twice a year so they are about as up to date as Canadian Gov’t topo maps can be.

GeoBC’s 1:20000 TRIM GeoTIFF maps have just been made publicly available. Their Topographic Map Viewer, which has a zoomable map of BC, is a good way of figuring out which mapsheets you want exactly, but currently only GeoPDF (collared) files are available this way. For the time being you need to download GeoTIFFs manually at http://pub.data.gov.bc.ca/datasets/177864/tif/.

NRCan also provide a publicly available Toporama Web Map Service (WMS) on the Internet. QGIS can load any required Canadian Topographic map data from the Toporama WMS directly. The advantage is that topo maps for any area in Canada can be directly accessed via QGIS without needing to identify, download and store local GeoTIFF map files on the QGIS workstation. Also, the map layers are individually accessible in case that is of value. The disadvantage is that high speed Internet access is required while working in QGIS and accessing the WMS is slower than using local map files. The Toporama WMS can supply many projections but UTM would generally be the best choice for kayaking and hiking.

The WMS and downloadable map files appear to use different styles so there may be a preference for one or the other. At the current time, several of the Toporama WMS layers, including the Feature Names layer are not scaled correctly for larger scale maps (like 1:50000) so their text or content is too large and obscures other map features. This is not the case with the downloadable Toporama map files which appear to have all features properly scaled for 1:50000. It is possible to use both map files and the WMS at the same time as long as the file layer is in front of the WMS layer, this could be useful to fill in around the edges of a map file without going to the effort of downloading adjacent maps.

Assuming a PC and Internet connection are available, Canadian topo maps can be created with no cost other than some time and effort, unless paper maps are required. If paper maps are required, an available printer can be used with any associated paper and ink or toner costs or PDF maps can be created and sent to a commercial printing service such as Staples Copy & Print Centre. Because topo maps are intended to be viewed in colour, map features on monochrome printouts can be difficult to distinguish so colour printing is very desirable.

#### How to use QGIS

There are lots of online resources to help you get going with QGIS. During this class we only have time to touch on the most superficial aspects. On your own time back at home you could check out one of the following:

Official QGIS User Guide (the Abrupt Intro to QGIS): http://docs.qgis.org/2.8/pdf/en/QGIS-2.8-UserGuide-en.pdf

#### 60 minute QGIS Intro

Today we only have time to cover the extreme basics of QGIS and GIS. Here’s an outline of what we’re going to cover.

1) Make sure that QGIS is installed as well as Google Earth.

2) When you start QGIS you’ll be given a blank project and the default QGIS interface. This consists of:

• Top Toolbar
• Tool buttons (horizontal top, vertical left) – contain quick access to various tools and functions for adding layers, editing, etc.
• Left tool windows. Defaults are Browser (for accessing files) and Layers (showing the layers you have added to your project)
• Map view window – shows the current layers you have loaded into your project.

4) Adjusting layer height – do this by dragging and dropping your layers in the layer window. You can also rename layers and set properties such as transparency in this window.

5) Adding another layer – Vector Layer. First, create a path in Google Earth that wanders around the streets of . Then save this path as a KML file (NOT KMZ!). Right click on the layer and select Properties. Now browse through the properties that you can adjust. The most important are Style and Labels. Each category has a variety of settings that you can mess with.

#### Instructions for creating a map

##### Install the current QGIS version
• QGIS is version 2.10.1 at the time this was written
• Install QGIS.
• Determine which 1:50k map files are required from the Toporama on-line index (see http://atlas.gc.ca/toporama/en/index.html) or open this NTS index in Google Earth: http://ftp.geogratis.gc.ca/pub/nrcan_rncan/raster/toporama/index/
• Open Quantum GIS Desktop
• Layer -> Add Raster Layer, or click the toolbar button
• Multi-select each required map, or add each file individually
• File -> Save Project As…
• Give the project a name and select the project file location
• File -> New Print Composer, or click the toolbar button

QGIS can also be configured to load map information on the fly via the Internet using the WMS protocol, so downloading map files isn’t required. This is handy but not essential and replaces the above steps.

• A description of the Toporama WMS and each of its layers can be found at:http://atlas.gc.ca/toporama/en/index.html
• Open Quantum GIS Desktop
• Settings -> Project properties – CRS (set the default CRS for this project)
• Select Enable ‘on the fly’ CRS transformation
• Set the CRS. For most of BC/Alberta the CRS should be NAD83 / UTM zone 11N if printing Topo type maps
• Layer -> Add WMS Layer, or click the toolbar button
• (If Toporama WMS not defined) Layers tab -> New
• (If Toporama WMS not defined) Set Name to Toporama,
set URL to http://wms.ess-ws.nrcan.gc.ca/wms/toporama_en, click OK
• Ensure the Toporama WMS is selected
• Click Connect
• Select 0 WMS-Toporama for all layers, or expand the second item +1 Toporama to select one or more specific layers. The WMS will respond much more quickly if all the required layers are selected at once as one QGIS layer rather than individually as separate QGIS layers. Separate layers allow rendering order to be controlled (determine which layers are on top).
• Set Image encoding to PNG24, the layer will be larger and download more slowly than if JPEG were selected but should be better quality for printing
• If selecting multiple separate layers for QGIS, select the next layer or layers, ensure the CRS is correct (there seems to be a bug and QGIS may hang if this isn’t correct), click Add and repeat as required. In the current QGIS release (1.8.0), to keep the CRS when adding multiple separate layers, select the new layer(s) before unselecting the previous layer(s).
• Click Close when finished adding Toporama WMS layers
• (Optional) In the Layers panel, if multiple layers were added and they are to be re-ordered, drag the layers into the required rendering order
• File -> Save Project As…
• Give the project a name and select the project file location
• File -> New Print Composer, or click the toolbar button
• In the Layers panel on the right side of the QGIS screen, select one of the map layers added above
• Layer -> Set Project CRS from Layer, set the project CRS the same as the selected map layer
• Settings -> Project properties -> Coordinate Reference System (CRS)
• Select Enable ‘on the fly’ CRS transformation
• Under Recently used coordinate reference systems, verify that the highlighted CRS matches the loaded map layers. For most of BC/Alberta the CRS should be NAD83 / UTM zone 11N.
• Vector -> GPS -> GPS Tools -> Load GPX file
• Browse to the *.gpx or *.kml file containing the required GPS track and open it
• Set the required Feature types (Tracks at least)
• A layer for the GPS track should now be present on the map
• In the Layers panel on the right side of the QGIS screen, select the GPS track layer added above
• Layer -> Properties… -> Style
• Set the track colour, symbol, etc. as required
• (Optional) In the Layers panel, clear the X from the selection box to the left of the GPS track layer to prevent it from displaying and printing
##### Creating the printable map in QGIS Print Composer
• A QGIS Project can have multiple Print Composers defined. In most cases, a separate one would probably be defined for each map page to be printed. Also, a Print Composer can have more than one map defined so an inset overview map could be added to a sheet or a single sheet could have multiple small maps on it, etc.
• In the QGIS Print Composer window (not the Quantum GIS window)
• Composition -> Paper and quality (panel on the right side of the Print Composer screen)
• Set the paper format (Legal, ANSI A / Letter or ANSI B / Tabloid) and orientation (Landscape or Portrait)
• Note the Width and Height shown for the selected paper size
• Select Print as Raster at 300 dpi (this seems to work better for printing the grid and makes the exported PDF smaller)
• Layout -> Add Map, or click the Toolbar button
• Use the mouse to draw a rectangle. This area will display the map currently loaded into QGIS
• Item Properties -> Map (on the right side of the Print Composer screen)
• Set the Width and Height to that of the paper (from above) less about 6 mm in each dimension because laser printers can’t print to the edge of a page
• Set the Scale to 1:50000 or whatever scale is required
• Use the mouse to centre the map on the page (drag)
• View -> Zoom Full, or click the Toolbar button
• Layout -> Move Content, or click the Toolbar button
• Use the mouse to Pan (drag) and Zoom (mouse wheel) the map to the area of interest
• Layout -> Move Item, or click the Toolbar button (this is required for selection in addition to move)
• Click on the map to select it
• Item Properties -> Map, set the Rotation (in degrees) to maximize the coastline shown on the page. Start by estimating the required rotation and adjust as required.
• Re-adjust the area of interest that is displayed as required
• Item Properties -> General options (below the Map, Extents and Grid sections)
• (Optional) Unselect Show Frame to eliminate the map frame
##### To add a 1 km UTM grid on the printed map
• Layout -> Move Item, or click the Toolbar button (this is required for selection in addition to move)
• Click on the map to select it
• Item Properties -> Grid (below Map and Extents sections)
• Enable Show Grid
• Set Interval X and Interval Y to 1000 (for a 1km grid)
• Set Line color to a medium gray (too light and it won’t be legible, too dark and it will be distracting)
• (Optional) Enable Draw annotation to print the UTM grid coordinates on the edge of the map
• Set Annotation position to Inside frame or as required
• Set Annotation direction to Boundary direction
• Set Font… -> Size to 4 or whatever size is required
• Set Coordinate precision to 0.
• If you want to tidy up the UTM labels a bit, go to x Draw coordinates > Format > select “Custom”. Then click the “Epsilon” symbol. This opens the Expression based annotation sheet. Enter the following code on the left hand side:

This parses the UTM information to three digits to look like MGRS format. It may or may not work for you without some tweaking.

## Article by Nicholas Duggan FRGS Cgeog (GIS)

A Chartered Geographer with more than 15 years experience in GIS, data management, and geospatial innovation, Nicholas has consulted and provided work for most industry sectors such as offshore & onshore renewables, environmental, maritime archaeology, offshore & onshore survey, land management, public rights of way, demography, shipping, and traffic management. Nicholas currently is the CTO of the end-to-end geospatial solutions company The Carto Group, Follow him on twitter: @dragons8mycat His LinkedIn profile is here: https://uk.linkedin.com/in/dragons8mycat

### &ldquo QGIS v ArcGIS &rdquo Comments

Hi, very superficial article. In short the decisions should be based on what a GIS application is used for such as: Database interaction, printing maps (check both map pinting facilities), customasation for clients and a model builder tool to ensure certain business processes are followed in spatial work, processing speeds of spatial analytics algorithms.

/>Nicholas Duggan

Hi Sarel,
Thanks for identifying that Sarel, you are obviously a more advanced user of ArcGIS (I refer to mention of the model builder) and yes, this blog would be a little superficial in that case. You will have invested a lot of time and money in building a system around your need and are now reaping the rewards.
But what about the many GIS Consultants, environmentalists, ecologists, technicians, students, researchers & small business who are using GIS on an adhoc basis, where they don’t need complex workflows, web mapping server systems or simply don’t have the money to invest at the current time?
You just need to look at the many GIS blogs like this: http://www.geoplanit.co.uk/?p=21 to see that there is a growing amount of “casual” users of GIS now, the Google Earthers, the Bingers….even my 8yr old daughter is whizzing around in Open Streetmap.
As stated in the article, this was from my own personal view through my 15yrs of GIS working in many different areas of the “geo-world”. I would be happy to do a full blow by blow analysis but it would be lost on the “average” user, who wants to dip in & out of GIS or wants to make a map for their homework. I would like to think that this might give the basic GIS user or the person just starting out, a few ideas and hints to get them on their way.

The most important thing about QGIS was not mentioned though. It is open source and free. Not free as in free beer, but free as in you can do whatever you are capable of.
Although ESRI has built a great product, it’s pricing makes it forbidden for a target group of professionals who don’t work in big companies.

I agree Nikos, what a company can afford is very important. If one looks under the 𔃱. Price’ heading you will see it is mentioned that QGIS is open source.

Some of your images of the ArcGIS platform (header especially) are nearly 10 years old. Not to mention they’re from a Windows XP desktop. Perhaps you should test some of the latest products from Esri?

/>Nicholas Duggan

Hi Ted,
All images were obtained using ArcGIS 10.2.1 desktop in Windows 7. Not sure how it looks a decade old.
The article (as stated) is a personal review of both latest versions (at time of printing). I am currently working on an update to compare ArcGIS 10.3 & QGIS 2.8….unfortunately on Windows 7 though I do have QGIS running on Windows 10 beta also.

Hello Nichols,
Yes I enjoyed your read, I have used both QGIS & ArcGIS as a contractor you are subject to what tools are made available to you. These software products are only tools in the GIS world that help the professional solve that problem or answer that question, too many people get caught up in the best tools will only give you the answer.

Great article Nicholas. I wish I had read this a year ago. We were looking for a simple cost effective GIS system to be used within our company and decided on Global Mapper. Have you ever looked at that before and how does it compare?

/>Nicholas Duggan

Hi Steve,
A couple of years ago I started a software comparison matrix which I had intended to maintain but due to work commitments fell behind a little: https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/ccc?key=0Aho5SyzIJT5ydGFzUkk0SHpuYWxWS3dKVUtvT1JFLUE&usp=sharing#gid=0
It is still fairly current though probably doesn’t show ArcGIS & QGIS in the best light now.

I’ve worked with ArcGIS 9.3 and 10.1, but now work exclusively with QGIS 2.x. I particularly agree that QGIS [through its GDAL links] can open just about any data, although I don’t have the same criticisms of its handling of projections and datums.

These days, I convert almost everything [raster and vector] to PostGIS and then analyse and visualise through the QGIS interface. That probably makes me an ‘advanced’ user, although I don’t see myself that way.

There are still some high-end applications [network analysis comes to mind] where I think ArcGIS [with the required add-ons] has the edge. I also think open-source generally has lagged in remote sensing, but QGIS 2.x is making quite rapid strides to an integrated platform using the OTB and Sextante plugins [I strongly dislike the default GRASS interface].

I now have no hesitation recommending QGIS for production use it’s not a cheap compromise solution when you can’t afford ArcGIS, it really is a credible alternative.

Good article and nice to see the open source world catching up with COTS. One thing I did notice was around your comparison on speed. Whilst ArcMap is still a 32bit application as of V10.1 (I think) it comes with a separate 64bit background geoprocessing add on.

Having used Microstation for Telecommunications’ OSP designing, I am sure QGIS can also be used for the same purpose with better clarity.

I am currently looking for “PlugIns” in QGIS to draw point, lines & shapes for Telecom OSP designing

I really enjoyed reading your article. However the following is just simply not true:

* “As I write this ArcGIS works as a 32bit application. This means that it only utilizes one core at any time and will use the RAM contiguously.”. 32bit applications are perfectly capable of using multiple cores.

* “In theory, 32bit Windows has a 4GB limit on RAM but ArcGIS will still consume RAM well over this. I currently use a machine with 16GB of RAM and find ArcGIS using it up!”. This not only in theory, but also in practice. The fact that software uses more than 4GB on a 32 bit OS means that multiple (sub)processes are running, which also means that it uses multiple cores (as distributed by the OS). Also Paul Cronnie’s option might how it uses more that 4GB.

Thank you for the article.

/>Nicholas Duggan

Hi Martijn,
Could you please elaborate? The application uses contiguous RAM, I am happy to provide specifics but in layman terms it will keep”shunting” to the RAM until there is no more RAM available. Monitoring the logs for the cores there is only use of one core (multiple threads).
It is true (as Paul Cronnie states), that Geoprocessing can run as 64bit processes and it is highly recommended, though I am comparing the STANDARD installs, the 64bit background processing is a download “extra” for 10.1, 10.2, 10.2.2 & 10.3 at present.

Here is a quote from the ESRI knowledge base:
“ArcGIS Desktop 10.0 applications are natively 32-bit applications but take advantage of a technology known as large memory awareness. This means that individual processes, such as ArcMap.exe, may be capable of accessing more than 2GB of memory.”

Thanks you your good comparison on real experiences. May I permit translate in Thais to my student.

Good article. I am using ArcGIS for around 3 years and I am completely amazed with the features of it. Ranging from network analyst to spatial analyst and multicriteria analysis to geostatistical nalysis. Since, I havent used QGIS, I am wondering if QGIS do have such capabilities. Also, ArcGIS provides a powerful tool as ArcGIS online, I wonder how it can be done using QGIS. Is it possible? Can we have web applications and phone platforms such as android, windows and iOS compatible with QGIS?

For our online version we use mapguide open source.

Hi, thank you for the article. I am using the ArcGIS. On the other hand I dont use the QGIS. I have a question. For example, I prepare some data with QGIS. After that, I wonder can I open the data with ArcGIS. Are the QGIS’s output data similar the ArcGIS’s output data? What are the names of the geodatabase and feature class from QGIS also meet?

Hi, it is a good article. Now am using Arcgis 10.2.1. I have thorough knowledge in Arcgis order versions also. I wonder can i work in data driven pages in Arcgis 10.2.1, it is most powerful in layout designing and setting. I don’t know how it can be done in Qgis. One thing i did notice was the coordinate system in Qgis.

/>Nicholas Duggan FRGS Cgeog (GIS)

In QGIS you can use the “Atlas” function within the Map Composer, works just like the data driven pages with the added bonus that you can add functions.

ESRI Tech Support: I have found their Tech Support to be totally AWESOME! Its probably BETTER than the software! Compared to other Tech Support from other Software vendors – ESRI WINS by miles!

[…] For those interested in seeing the comparison between QGIS and ArcGIS you can check out this external article here: https://www.xyht.com/spatial-itgis/qgis-v-arcgis/ […]

I would love to stay with ArcGIS, but we need to get rid of Windows. Unfortunately ESRI is married with Microsoft and they decided to fail together. What a pitty for this professional GIS.

I worked for the largest user of ESRI software back in the 80s and 90s. We were a beta site and ESRI basically took a ton of what created and added it to their software packages without paying us back than. I stopped updating my personal ESRI software years ago when buggy ArcGIS ten was released. The wheels fell off ESRI when ten was released with so many bugs and problems that they never recovered their good reputation. I have stayed with the last version of 9 since it is so stable.

I now am very excited using FREE QGIS for most of my work and reviewing. QGIS is MAC friendly and FAST! In 2016 they now have TONS of free plugins that work better than the expensive ESRI plugins. The best part is the QGIS software is free and is constantly updated, unlike ArcGIS which can be stuck with major bugs for many months.

The BIGGEST issue is ESRI now postes ALL their data in 10-10.x format and not the commonly used/shared shapefiles or the older 9.x version. Hey ESRI, it is 2016 not 1993! Sorry, but you NO LONGER have a boot on neck monopoly on GIS. NOBODY today is going to pay $1,500 ransom for your horrid buggy software! ESRI currently is one of the greedest run companies in the U.S. The CEO thinks he is still god’s gift to U.S. municipalities with his ancient gis software. How much longer is the government going to pay insane software fee$ for software that is old and tired?

QGIS is by far the winner in the GIS software marathon. Can be run on any platform and is free! QGIS is slowly growing and ESRI is slowing dying. Somebody just needs to make an ArcGIS 10.x data importer for QGIS and that should put the final nail in ESRIs coffin.

ESRI should have died or been bought YEARS ago. Got to give them credit for their gov lobbist$Hi Nicholas, I enjoyed the article. I have been using ESRI products for the last 20yrs or so, since the early days of ArcInfo on a Unix platform. My application has really been limited to the defence domain but I think that a large part of the pull towards ESRI is that large corporations/organisations need to be able to have some comeback if the software doesn’t do what it was meant to. This is something that is non-existent if you take the OS/free option. I have to say that in the early days I believe the military went with ESRI because it was the only option for the applications that it had, this is not the case now. I have been using QGIS for the last 4yrs and have been extremely impressed with the capability and can’t understand why more organisations don’t cross over to OSGeo particularly with ESRI’s current pricing model. Hi Alfredo, As Steven Feldman would say “There is no such thing as a free lunch”….by this he states that although QGIS is free, if you are using it commercially & require support, then you can get commercial support for QGIS. Whereas with ArcGIS, you pay for you software and then an annual support license, with QGIS the software is free and you will get a fair bit of support for free with the excellent developers BUT if you require full support for QGIS you can pay and it is normally a lot cheaper than the ESRI annual support cost (I found development of an add-on cost me around$100). Look at the work of Lutra Consulting and Astun Technology who are very well priced.

To all those who have commented on this, thank you for your input and I find it extremely interesting to read your thoughts on this.
If you would like to talk with me further on this, you can contact me on twitter as @dragosn8mycat

[…] For those interested in seeing the comparison between QGIS and ArcGIS you can check out this external article here: https://www.xyht.com/spatial-itgis/qgis-v-arcgis/ […]

[…] For those interested in seeing the comparison between QGIS and ArcGIS you can check out this external article here: https://www.xyht.com/spatial-itgis/qgis-v-arcgis/ […]

Thanks for a good review! ESRI products are dominant in US Federal applications, leading to pricing that makes them unaffordable for many in less well-funded use cases. One example is FEMA’s HAZUS kit for disaster and emergency planning I’m working on a transcription of the FEMA HAZUS-MH package to QGIS, PostGIS, and web GIS and would be interested in contacting anyone interested in joining me in this work.

Thanks for a good review! ESRI products are dominant in US Federal applications, leading to pricing that makes them unaffordable for many in less well-funded use cases. One example is FEMA’s HAZUS kit for disaster and emergency planning I’m working on a transcription of the FEMA HAZUS-MH package to QGIS, PostGIS, and web GIS and would be interested in contacting anyone interested in joining me in this work.

## Creating a Nautical Chart in QGIS 2.4

Continuing with a nautical theme, here is a nautical chart I creating using QGIS 2.4. It includes a Graticule in decimal degrees, a Compass Rose and a scale bar in Nautical Miles. A magnetic declination of 3º 35′ was determined using the MagneticField utility of GeographicLib, an advanced software library for solving geodesic problems. I will post a full tutorial shortly.

Nautical Chart for North Dublin Bay

The Oceancolor Data Downloader is a new plugin for QGIS from the Mapping and Geographic Information Centre of the British Antarctic Survey that downloads Oceancolor and Sea Surface Temperature data from NASA’s Oceancolor website . The plugin currently downloads three datasets:

• MODIS AQUA chlorophyll concentration
• SeaWiFS chlorophyll concentration
• MODIS AQUA night time Sea Surface Temperatures

The data accessed includes daily, 8 day, monthly and yearly composites, all of which can be saved to disk while downloading. Future plans for the plugin include additional access to other datasets such as ocean Net Primary Production , selection by bounding box, the ability to save in other formats, a progress bar və s.

I used the plugin to download global Sea Surface Temperatures for the 13th Jan 2015. I then used shapefiles from Natural Earth to create a simple basemap. I finally chose the IBCAO Polar Stereographic projection ( EPSG: 3996 ) to create a map centred on the North Pole.

If you use the plugin to produce published research, please cite: